2014年12月8日星期一

1967.12.8两名离开中国的日本侨民谈黑龙江文革情况



 按:红色标记系录入者所加。
二战后有很多日本人及其子女留在了中国东北,中共建政后陆续将这些日裔侨民遣返回日(当然很多人其实是自愿离开中国)。鉴于外界极度缺乏关于中国的一手资料,所以这些日侨返国后,日本官方往往会采访他们了解中国情况,就像港英政府对大陆逃港者也会询问以搜集情报一样。
即便在文革中,也有日裔人士从东北回到日本,日本官员也对他们做了采访以了解中共及文革的情况。19671117日,英国驻日本外交官M. Elliott与日本外务省中国课课长Ishibashi在东京例行会面,Ishibashi交给Elliott对三位近期返国日裔侨民的采访报告(见1967.12.1 英国与日本交换对华资讯与观点http://communistchinadoc.blogspot.com/2014/12/1967121.html ),由于这三份报告都是日文版,Elliott没有立即而是在翻译成英文后才把报告发回英国外交部。1967.12.8 Elliot将先翻译好的两份报告发给外交部,第三份则于当月15日发出。
这两份报告的采访对象都是在196710月份离开黑龙江的日侨:第一位A先生,32岁,原本是在哈尔滨东方红锅炉厂工作,1015日离开哈尔滨, 22日到达香港;第二位B先生,29岁,被一个中国家庭收养,在宾县平坊公社做林业技术员,1010日离开宾县,27日到达香港,他是因为妻子到达广州时当天生下了一个小孩,只好多待了10天产后休息。
对两位日侨的采访要点见下。
A先生认为:1. 19679月份的各派大联合徒有其表。人们不敢公开抵抗毛泽东要求各派群众组织联合起来的指示,因为怕被认为反革命、反毛,但各派在表面上派出代表进行联合后,实际上仍然保持严重的对立;2. 对立的证据之一就是10.1国庆庆祝时两派发生冲突,有一人死亡;3.工人对上班生产毫不在意;4.由于过去一年来中苏在黑龙江边境屡屡发生船只冲突,黑龙江民众的备战工作更加指向应对苏联入侵而非越南战争扩大;5.哈尔滨的主要学校在1015日复课了。
B先生认为:1.宾县1967年粮食收成低于去年,因为大豆受虫害严重减产,另外黑龙江全省应该也是减产;2.到本年9月,地区、县、公社的革委会就都建立起来了,但公社革委会内问题多多,比如武装部长和公社领导就有冲突,而且领导普遍回避问题.3.经由周恩来的调解,哈尔滨两大群众派别“捍卫派”和“炮轰派”暂时妥协了一阵子,但处于弱势的“炮轰派”于101213日又发起了静坐抗议活动;4.广州目前有军队维持局势,表面上看起来还比较稳定。但到了晚上支持广州军区的“主义兵”、“地总”仍和反对广州军区的“红旗”派之间有冲突。
有意思的是,B先生对妻子在广州生下孩子毫无物质准备,只好到广州市公安局外事办申请特别粮票、布票供应,接待的老家伙由以日本政府对华态度不好为由拒绝了B先生的申请,但B先生未就此放弃,而是百般解释、请求,最终为他的妻子和小孩申请到了27斤粮食和少量的布。

出处:英国外交部档案FCO_21_27

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CONFIDENTIAL            British Embassy,
Tokyo.
(1693/74/67)                                 8 December, 1967

Dear Wilson,
I now enclose two of the three translations of refugee reports which I promised in my letter of 1 December, with additional copies for “S” distribution.
2. I have not sent copies to Peking, as we are still in some uncertainty here as to how much they are now prepared to receive, but you could pass copies on if necessary.

(M.Elliott)

D.C. Wilson
Far Eastern Department
Foreign Office


REPORTS ON THE IMPRESSIONS OF A JAPANESE REPATRIATE CONCERNING CONDITIONS IN COMMUNIST CHINA FOLLOWING THE SEPTEMBER GREAT ALLIANCE

1,   The Great Alliance initiated in September is being formally carried out in order not to disobey instructions from the central government, but internal disunity still exists.
2.  In HARBIN during a mass demonstration to celebrate the national Day on 1 October violence broke out, resulting in one death.
3. Factory labourers are very much out of hand.
4. As a result of the outbreak, between the end of last year and this spring, of shipping incidents between China and the Soviet Union on the Amur River, average people in Heilungkiang Province feel more strongly about keeping a watchful eye on the Soviet Union than about preparing for an expansion of the Vietnam War.
5. The primary schools in HARBIN were re-opened from 15 October.

     The following is a description of the state of the September Great Alliance, as related on 27 October by Mr. A, a Japanese repatriate from HARBIN who arrived in HongKong on 22 October with his family of five.  Mr. A. is 32 years old and was working in the HARBIN TUNG FANG HUNG boiler factory.
1.   We left HARBIN on the fifteenth, coming to Hong Kong via PEKING and staying in CANTON for three nights.  There was nothing particular to note on the way, but because the transport facilities were operated by men under the direct control of the Ministry of Defence there was considerable disorder, and the special express in which we were travelling made lengthy unscheduled stops to wait for changes in the crews.  As a result we were five hours late getting to Peking from HARBIN and four hours late getting to CANTON from PEKING. Then, when the train reached SSUPING Station in KIRIN Province I noticed that the roof and other parts of this station, which was well known for its size and beauty, had been blasted in the fighting. Again, at about midnight on the eighteenth, while going through HONAN Province, the train stopped for around an hour because of a "TSAO-FAN" demonstration. I was not able to tell the name of the place. CANTQN is tense, but was comparatively quiet. Nevertheless, patrolman wearing armbands saying "People's Liberation Army Public Security Patrol" were prominent. There was no fighting in the town, but there was an article on the wallposters saying that there had been violence at one meeting, leading to injuries.

2. The September Great Alliance is purely superficial. It came about willy-nilly, largely because opposition to Mao's instructions marks one as anti-Mao, anti-Revolution. At the speaker’s factory, the Great Alliance was put into effect on 27 September. Two opposing groups and the former production control cadre put forward their respective representatives and formed a 'Production Supervisory Section’. However, nobody attended the meetings, the date, time and agenda of which the factory manager had announced beforehand, and even a search of the factory was fruitless as the representatives had all vanished somewhere. For the sake of form the Great Alliance was carried out, but as it met with this kind of negative resistance, it might as well not have happened at all.

3. The HEILUNGKIANG 'Civil War’ revolves around CHAo CH’U FEI
(6392/0637/7236), who holds the real power of the judicature, of inspection and of law and order. (Note by C-General: A representative of the general headquarters of the HAN WEI (1880/5898) triple revolutionary alliance.) In order to put a stop to the violence between the 'Stiok union' (HAN WEI P’AI 1880/5898/3175) and the 'gun-thunder Group’(P’AO HUNG P’AI 4276/6575/3175), around 8 September an investigating team representing the chief of State No. 1 Machine Industry Department came from the central government. But it produced few results, and although a confiscation of arms was effected, in the celebration demonstration for the national festivities on 1 October, students clashed on the issue of whether or not one school headmaster who took part belonged to the 'Triple opposition' elements, and one death resulted. Also, three days before the speaker left, there was similar violence leading to injuries.

4. Until the speaker announced in October of last year, his intention to return to Japan, he had connections with high school graduates and was working in production control lower grade management. Judging from his experiences then, and from later observation, he considered the recent decline in industrial discipline to be pronounced. There is a high incidence of workers arriving late, leaving early and going slow; and in the state administrative machinery there is a similar lack of responsibility. Unlike farm labourers whose income and food would disappear if they did not work, factory workers can still obtain a fixed wage however low production falls because of the Cultural Revolution; hence they engage in conflicts as they please. As a counter-measure, in the early part of September the central government put out the instruction: 'Anyone causing the destruction of plant equipment through violence will suffer cessation of wages or legal penalties. Factory employees holding up production will suffer cessation of wages. However, anyone proving that he has not himself taken part in violence is excepted’.

5. Recently in China, a new idea, in addition to "cut short the revolution, stimulate production" is emphasised - "Prepare for war". "War" means an attack from the Soviet Union, and this is both the way ordinary people understand it and the way the central government intends it. One can conjecture from the central government's thinking that an attack from Vietnam is not so much to be feared. Supposing there was an attack, the national frontier is short, and the terrain would be a great handicap to the enemy’s sending in a large military force.
For average people the Vietnam War is "someone else's affair"; but they do have direct experience of the pressing problems of the Sino-Soviet border dispute. First of all, the frontier is long. Secondly, between the end of last year and this spring there have been numerous conflicts between ships of the two countries on the Amur River. Following the outbreak of incidents, instructions have come to the speaker's factory to build large boilers for large ships which the Russians could not defeat, so there can be no doubt that these incidents are occurring. The interpretation placed on "Prepare for war" by the Chinese people, or at least by the HEILUNGKIANG people is "Prepare against the Soviet Union".

6. The primary schools in HARBIN were opened on 15 October.
As this was just the day of their departure the speaker's eldest daughter (12 years old, third year of primary school) did not attend, but so far as textbooks are concerned no arrangements had been made, except for ’The thoughts of Mao’. Moreover the atmosphere was such that nobody dare speak about the curriculum.


CONVERSATION WITH A REPATRIATE FROM
PIN (6333) DISTRICT. HEILUNGKIANG PROVINCE.
(Report)
Summary
(1) Over the whole of this district, the harvest was less than last year. Soy beans especially suffered pest damage. Throughout the province there was a sharp reduction in the harvest.

(2) By about September, the establishment of Revolutionary Committees at the level of Special Areas, Districts and Communes ended. There were many problems within the communes, such as the opposition between the chief commune officers and the chief officers of the militia section, and the evasive attitude of the leadership.


(3) The confrontation of the HARBIN City HANWEIP'AI (1880/5898/3175) and P’AO HUNG P’AI (4276/6575/3175) seemed for a time to have been settled by the conciliation of CHOU EN-LAI, effected in September in Peking between representatives of both factions. But on the 12th and 13th of October there were demonstrations and sit-down strikes once again, and conditions became confused.

(4) In CANTON where subject stayed en route, there was a superficial calm, since the army was keeping guard. However, the CHU YI PING (0031/5030/0365) and the TI TSUNG (0966/4920) who had formerly supported the Military Zone seemed on the point of breaking it. At night, some clashes between these groups and the "Red Flag" were observed.


Main Text
I have the honour to report the following summary of state­ments made on the 3rd by a repatriate (aged 29, forestry technician) from PIN District of HEILUNGKIANG Province, who crossed into Hong Kong on the 27th of last month, concerning harvest conditions, progress of the Great Cultural Revolution, war preparations, conditions in CANTON City, etc.

(1) Background. Subject, the adopted child of a Chinese, graduated from ACHENG (7093/1004) middle and high schools and studied for 1.5 years at the TSITSIHAR Forestry Practical School. After 1965, he worked as a forestry technician at the PING FANG (1627/2455) Commune, near PINCH'ENG (6333/1004), south-east of HARBIN. Monthly income 40.5 yuan. He left PINCH’ENG on 10 October to return to Japan. En route, he stayed four nights in HARBIN and one night in PEKING. He arrived in CANTON on the 17th, where, as his wife gave birth to a child, he remained 10 days.

(2)Harvest and Food Conditions. PING FANG Commune grows kaoliang, soy beans, millet etc. This year because of damage by drought in the spring and thereafter by pests, kaoliang and soy beans gave sharply reduced yields. The damage to soy beans was especially serious (from 60% to 70% of an average harvest) and he had heard that lower production had occurred throughout the province. His own most recent rice ration was of three-or-four-year-old tasteless rice, and he felt that there must be severe shortage of food in China. He could not believe Chinese reports of a bumper harvest this year.

(3)Cultural Revolution in the Farm Villages. The SUNG-HUA (2646/5363) River Special Area Revolutionary Committee was set up about June. Between then and about September, Revolutionary Committees seem to have been set up in MULAN (2606/5695), ACH’ENG, SHANGCHIH (1424/1807), PIN etc., that is in eight districts or communes below district level attached to this Area.
Originally, by the measures for decentralisation of authority taken in 1959, these eight districts had been actually attached to HARBIN City, but in June of this year they had become both in fact and theory attached to the SUNGHUA River Special Area. These were regarded as preventative measures ordered centrally, because the power of HARBIN City was growing, and there was concern about the development of an "independent kingdom". When the Revolutionary Committees were set up, there was no fighting in the farm villages but in his commune things did not go smoothly between the head of the Revolutionary Committee and the head of the militia section who was vice-chief of the Revolutionary Committee. The head of the militia maintains a special command system through the militias of the district and the military zone, and commands the civilian troops. (Civilian military training is at present, however, in abeyance). Where subject was, everybody disliked the head of militia for holding forth in spite of knowing little about farming. There were three military representatives from the 73rd Army as well in the Commune who assisted the militia section. The highest-ranking authorities in the Communes had more-or-less lost their positions. Among the first secretaries of twenty or so communes within the district, there was not more than one so-called "first-grade cadre" left. The leaders of production brigades and production teams (who are now called chief officers) after having had power seized from them once early this year, have in many cases made a comeback (about 40% are thought to have been reinstated) , but they have become suspicious of centrally ordered measures, and they have ceased to give guidance by positive speaking.
Further, the peasants were dissatisfied because while hitherto they had had private plots of about 1 mou per person of newly-cultivated land, these had been taken away from them last spring.

(4)War Preparations.    For the past two or three years the following steps have "been taken because of the strengthening of defences against the Soviet Union
(a) the National Defence Highway between PINCH’ENG and ACH'ENG was completed in 1964, but this year people were sent out even from HEIFANG Commune, and repair works were undertaken. There were highways between HSIN HSIUNG (2450/0546) and the bank of the SUNGHUA River, and between NINGYUAN and FANGCHENG (1380/6678 and 2455/2973) under construction this year, and there were other roads already completed besides.
(b) about March this year an electric cable factory had been evacuated from HARBIN to a position to the east of this commune and was presently under construction.
(C)Since 1965 large-scale underground works have been secretly carried out at TALING (1129/1545) Commune, ACH'ENG district. The rumour is that in an emergency the HEILUNGKIANG Provincial Committee and the Military Zone H.Q. would move there.
Apart from this, though it has no direct relation to military preparations, there was a copper-mine to the south of this Commune, which had been worked at the time of the Great Leap Forward, and subsequently closed, which opened again for mining last year: current preparations followed a plan for full-scale production next year.
As the commune members receive an income from such construction works it was thought that even if their wages from agricultural production were less than last year, they would thus be made good.

(5) Disturbances in HARBIN City.
Subject stayed in HARBIN for medical treatment from the end of August until September. At this time he observed armed clashes and read wall-newspapers. According to one of these, MAO TSE-T’UNG’ S nephew, MAO YUAN-SHIN, a graduate of HARBIN Military Industry University, had become a member of the HEILUNGKIANG Provincial Revolutionary Committee. In September, in order to settle the confrontation between the HANWEIP’AI supporters of the Revolutionary Committee, and the P’A0 HUNG P’AI, who were insisting on the overthrow of P'AN FU-SHENG (3382/1788/ 3932), WANG CHIA-TAO (3769/1367/6670) and CHAO CH’U-FEI (6392/0637/7236) CHOU EN-LAI put to representatives of both factions a nine-item agreement proposal.
Seven of these items were said to favour the P’AO HUNG  P'AI in their content. Both factions accepted the draft and there was calm for a while but when subject passed through on his way to Japan, uproar was breaking out again. About 12 October the P’AO HUNG P’AI people in numbers held a sit-down strike upon the roads, and obstructed traffic. On about the 13th members of the HAN WEI P'AI in great numbers held a 'Victory' demonstration. The 'victory' was said to be that this faction had occupied the HARBIN No. 1 Machine Workshop, the "base of the P'AO HUNG P'AI. There were reports in wall-newspapers that the P'AO HUNG P’AI had connections with LIN CHIEH (2651/2638).
This last time subject did not notice any armed clashes, hut in these circumstances he cannot believe that "Great Alliances" are in operation.

(6) Situation in CANTON
The railways between HARBIN and CANTON were running smoothly, and conditions in CANTON were far more peaceful than in HARBIN. The town was patrolled by People's Liberation Army troops, and subject saw no demonstrations. However the Red Guards and these regular troops were seen to be shouting at each other at night, and so the root of the opposition between the two does not seem to have been destroyed.
Subject on one occasion talked to the daughter of a soldier who had become a member of the CHUYI PING. According to her, the CHUYI PING, the TITSUNG, the "East is Red" group, etc., had formerly supported the CANTON Military District represented by HUANG YUNG-SHENG (7806/3057/0524) but were recently attacking the CANTON Military District’s new policy of support for the Red Flag Group. There were also reports that the CHING-PEI (Vigilants) (CANTON City Emergency Guard Section?) were supporting the CHUYI PING.
In CANTON subject's wife suddenly gave birth to a child, and they had to prolong their stay. Subject therefore went to the Public Security Office Foreign Affairs Section and asked for a special ration of food, cloth, etc., but the official of that section, an old man, adopted a cold attitude. He stated that the Japanese Government, despite the efforts of the Chinese Government and the Japanese people, had ruined Sino-Japanese relations. They had forbidden Chinese Government representa­tives to enter Japan for the Congress for the Prohibition of Atomic and Hydrogen Weapons, and committed outrages against the LIAO CH'ENG-CHIH Office. Eventually the official shouted that he could not grant subject's request.
Subject did not give in but tried all sorts of arguments. The result was that at length he was issued with food rations for two, (27 CHIN) and 10 SHAKO of cloth. (As the food was, even so, insufficient, he got a further 20 CHIN of food-tickets from their fellow-lodgers).
In CANTON, just as in HEILUNGKIANG Province, bicycles and watches had vanished from the shops.







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