2014年9月30日星期二

1971.9.30蒙古披露9.13中国飞机失事后英国外交部紧急从蒙古和苏联搜集信息



1971.9.30蒙古披露9.13中国飞机失事后英国外交部紧急从蒙古和苏联搜集信息

一、 930日英国驻蒙古外交官Colvin从乌兰巴托发给外交部的电报
按:不知为何这里说飞机是在913255失事,后来一般的说法是林彪座机256号三叉戟飞机在155越过中蒙边境,227失事。
电报还提到坠机经纬度是东经111.15,北纬47.42. 共有9人遇难,尸体附近的武器和文件表明飞机属于中国空军。中国驻蒙使馆人员已前去坠机现场查看,蒙古抗议中方的领空入侵行为并要求解释。

UNEN TODAY REPORTED THAT A JET AIRCRAFT OF THE CHINESE PEOPLES REPUBLIC CROSSED THE MONGOLIAN FRONTIER AT 0155 ON 13 SEPT CRASHING FROM UNKNOWN CAUSES AT 0255 IN KHENTIIAIMAG IN POSITION 111.15 47.42.
THE BURNED BODIES OF NINE TROOPS WITH SIDEARMS DOCUMENTS AND OTHER OBJECTS WERE FOUND INDICATING AIRCRAFT BELONGED TO THE AIR FORCE.

2. THE AIRCRAFT HAS BEEN SHOWN TO REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CHINESE EMBASSY.
MONGOLIA HAS PROTESTED TO CHINA AGAINST THE VIOLATION OF ITS FRONTIERS AND DEMANDED AN EXPLANATION.


二、苏联塔斯社930日发自乌兰巴托的英文报道
按:塔斯社引用蒙古官方通讯社称一架中国飞机侵入蒙古凌空后继续深入直至在某处因不明原因失事。英国外交官在“不明原因”下作注解说“被打下吗?”

Chinese jet crashes in Mongolia: Nine dead

(TASS in English) Ulan Bator: The Montsame agency has issued a report saying that on the night of 12th-13th September a jet plane belonging to the PRC violated the air space of the Mongolian People’s Republic and, continuing its flight deep into the country’s territory, crashed for unknown causes in the area of Hentei Aimak.
   
The charred bodies of nine people, firearms, documents and equipment pointing to the plane’s belonging to the PRC airforce were found at the place where this plane crashed.

Representatives of the PRC embassy in the Mongolian People’s Republic were enabled to travel to the site of the crash.
In connection with the violation of the state border of the Mongolian People’s Republic by a Chinese plane, the report says, the Mongolian side lodged a protest with the Chinese side and demanded an official explanation.

三、英国泰晤士报记者David Bonavia从莫斯科930日发回的报道

按:中国驻苏联外交官坚持说是一架民用飞机迷航在蒙古失事,而非军机入侵蒙古,还说虽然不确定中方是否已经回应蒙古的抗议,但质疑蒙古赶在中国国庆前夕公布此新闻的动机不良。
对于外媒报道中共领导层发生重大变故或毛泽东生病了,中共外交官一概斥之为垃圾消息,称毛身体很好,并激动地否认了原国家主席刘少奇逃到苏联的谣言。
总的来说,中国外交官看起来比过去几年都要健谈的多,

Nine killed in mystery crash of Chinese jet near Soviet border
From David Bonavia
Moscow, Sept 30

Chinese diplomats here denied tonight that a Chinese military aircraft had crashed in the territory of the Mongolian People's Republic. They said it was a civilian aircraft which had lost its way.
Earlier the Mongolian news agency, quoted by Tass, alleged that a Chinese jet flew deep into Mongolian air space on the night of September 12-13 and crashed for unknown reasons, killing all nine people on board. It said firearms and documents found on board indicated that the aircraft belonged to the Chinese Air Force.
The Chinese diplomats said at a big reception here that they thought their government had already replied to the Mongolian government's protest. However, they were not sure about this, and the Chinese press has apparently not mentioned the incident. The Chinese diplomats questioned Mongolia's motives in raising this subject today, the eve of China's national day.
The diplomats also dismissed as "rubbish and lies" Western and Soviet press reports that some political changes are taking place in Peking, or that Chairman Mao
Tse-tung is ill. " A human being can often get sick ", they said, " But at this moment Chairman Mao is in excellent health."
Though there was no bust of Chairman Mao in the embassy reception ball tonight, an exhibition of photographs showing him in various poses had been set up.
The most recent was taken last year.
Asked about the state of affairs on the Soviet Chinese frontier, the diplomats seemed less confident but said they thought it was normal, though there were many troops on the Soviet side of the border. They emphatically dismissed rumours that the disgraced head of state, Mr Liu Shao-chi, is in the Soviet Union.
In general, the officials were more communicative than anyone here could remember them being for several years past. The most senior Soviet representative to attend the reception appeared to be Mr Nikolai Rodionov, who was appointed a deputy foreign minister last year. But there was a good turnout of ambassadors accredited in Moscow, including Sir John Killick, the new British envoy. No Americans were invited.
As regards Mongolian-Chinese relations, the incident comes at a time when the ground has seemed to be being prepared for a slow improvement. A Chinese ambassador was sent to Ulan Bator last month for the first time for four years. However, if there is to be a fresh deterioration in Soviet-Chinese relations it is certain that Mongolia will be heavily involved on the Soviet side.
Soviet planning with regard to China is apparently in an extremely volatile state. The intense campaign of anti-Chinese propaganda that was unleashed after the announcement that President Nixon would visit Peking has almost dried up since the start of this month's mysterious events and rumours in Peking.
The Russians have stated that they believe something is up on the Chinese political scene. Mr Gromyko, the Foreign Minister, has given an unprecedented warning of international tension and even war if other states try to gang up on Russia. It was obvious from the context that he was referring to the United States and China. His statement, made on Tuesday at the United Nations, was dropped from the official text of his speech published yesterday in Pravda and Izvestia.
The drying up of the anti-Chinese propaganda suggests that the Russians are hoping for a political change in Peking which would be in their favour, and are not going to make themselve seem more than usually anti-Chinese while they wait to see what happens. If there has been trouble on the frontier, they may be trying to sort it out without aggravating matters further through inflammatory propaganda.

四、101日英国外交官Colvin从乌兰巴托发来电报

按:Colvin说此间的外交使团也注意到香港媒体之前关于刘少奇出逃的报道。某使馆的蒙古翻译说中方失事飞机是最近才从巴基斯坦买来的,飞机因气候恶劣而失事,而且同一天蒙古航空公司一架载员16人的伊尔14飞机也因为类似原因失事。Colvin说有个同事记得那天气候不好,但他回忆不起来。
THERE IS SPECULATION AMONGST MY COLLEAGUES, WHO ALSO HEARD EARLIER HONG KONG PRESS REPORT OF HIS ESCAPE, THAT THIS AIRCRAFT CARRIED LIU SHAO CHI.

2. THE MONGOLIAN INTERPRETER OF A DIPLOMATIC MISSION HERE TOLD ME THAT THE AIRCRAFT WAS A RECENT CHINESE PURCHASE FROM PAKISTAN WHICH HAD CRASHED IN VERY BAD WEATHER: AN IL14 OF MONGOLAIR CONTAINING 16 PEOPLE WAS SAID TO HAVE CRASHED TIE SAME DAY FROM SIMILAR CAUSES.

3. ONE COLLEAGUE REMEMBERS BAD WEATHER THAT DAY: WE DO NOT RECALL IT.

出处:英国外交部档案FCO21/805




2014年9月29日星期一

1967.9.29英国外交官确认中共领导对8.22英国代办处被烧很不满


按:1967927日英国驻华代办处一秘Ray Whitney给英国外交部David Wilson报告从外文出版社聘请的一位外国专家得到的最新消息,主要内容是确认英国外交官之前得到的信息,即中共领导层在91日讲话中对822日火烧英国代办处表示非常不满。可惜这位专家今天就合同期满离开中国了,所以这是她最后一次提供消息。







CONFIDENTIAL



Office of the British

Charge d'Affaires

                                                    PEKING.



29 September, 1967





Dear David,

Last night I obtained a few items of interest from our foreign contact in the Foreign Languages Press, some of which provide useful confirmation of earlier information. I regret that this will be the last offering from this particular source as she is today leaving China at the expiry of her contact.



2. Source had apparently seen various documents and reports of the recent speeches of Chinese leaders and had had a number of long conversations with her Chinese colleagues who, perhaps because source was on the point of departure, apparently spoke extremely frankly. Source could remember only a few of the details of what she saw and heard but retained a deep impression that the Maoists were in serious trouble throughout China and had no very clear idea of how to cope with it except to allow the PLA full rein to act in the restoration order. She confirmed that the speeches of 1 September and on other recent occasions had contained very strong injunctions indeed to the revolutionaries to quieten down. As far as she could see these directions were already having some effect in the Foreign Languages Press and the Friendship Hotel. Chiang Ch’ing, who had dealt with revolutionaries particularly severely, apparently said that “tens of thousands” of weapons had been stolen from the PLA and this could not be tolerated. The army must now take firm measures.



3.In his speech Chou en-lai is reported to have said that “We are now six months behind in production but we shall be able to make this up if (sic ) we succeed in the cultural revolution. ”



4. Source had also seen and heard quite a lot of references to the attack on the British office which indicated that it was strongly condemned by the leadership and had been contrary to the instructions they had issued. She had heard, from what she regarded as reliable sources, that the operation against the office had been directly organized and controlled by Yao Teng-shan, the former Chinese Charge in Djakarta. According to this report, red guards were sent to Yao’s own house two days after the attack on us and ransacked it as a reprisal. When I refered to the possibility that the alleged regret on the part of the Chinese leadership about the events of 22nd was merely a tactical maneuver and that these stories had been given to her with the deliberate intention that she would pass them on to us, source said she was quite convinced that this was not the case. She had had reports from very sources that the attack was deplored by the central leadership and believed they were genuine.



I am copying this letter to Brian Gilmore in Washington and to Emrys Davies in Hong Kong.



Yours ever

Ray

       (R.W. Whitney)



TO: D. C. Wilson, Esq.,

FAR EASTERN DEPARTMENT

出处:英国外交部档案FCO_21_12


                                                

2014年9月28日星期日

1966.9.28英国外交官观察的北京红卫兵运动情况


录入者按:红色标记系录入者所加。
1966928日,英国驻华代办处的J. D. I. Boyd向英国外交部远东司的D. C. Wilson(他就是后来于1987年任港督的卫奕信)报告近日北京红卫兵运动情况,主要包括以下内容。

一、工厂罢工
据某920日大字报称,北京针织厂的修正主义分子自912日发起罢工至今。罢工很可能是由于红卫兵的来访引起的,这也是为何官方连续通过人民日报呼吁不要因革命而妨碍生产。

二、西城区红卫兵纠察队的几个通令
Boyd概要讲了6个通令的内容,但没提到第12号通令,很可能和这两个通令都只有3句话,内容非常简单有关。
Boyd对第3号通令的发表时期记忆有误,经查该令发表于827日,而非9月初。他提到该通令说“不要强求人们用自行车灯。不要拦截老干部的车”,经查通令原文对应内容是 “五、为了给红卫兵在文化大革命中进行革命造反活动提供交通方便,我们认为,在路灯通明的马路上骑车,可以不必点灯。”和“四、绝不允许任何人无理勒令革命老首长搬家,辞退保姆,交出电视、沙发、汽车等,我们要坚决粉碎敌人的阶级报复,坚决反对绝对平均主义!”该通令还另有6条内容,此处略过不提。
对第6号通令,Boyd记录的内容包括“不要打人、跪、趴、挂黑牌、涂脸”,经查通令对应原文是跪、趴、弯腰、负重、游街、长时间站立、长时间举手、长时间低头、长时间做重活,等等,都属于体罚及变相体罚,都不是我们所应采取的斗争方法。‘挂黑牌’,‘戴高帽’,‘唱嚎歌’,‘剃光头’等等,都属于侮辱人,都不是我们所应采取的斗争方法。”Boyd还记录到“Do not send letters of persecution to them.”这条让人不明就里,笔者从未见过这个说法。经查,通令原文中有“不注重调查研究,不注重事实证据,反而片面轻信口供,迷信口供,并用武斗或威胁的方法逼人口供,逼出来了就信,这就叫逼供信。这种做法是盲目的,极易被坏人利用,这不是我们所应采取的斗争方法。”我猜 Boyd有可能是把“逼供信”这个词当作一种信件,译成letter了。
对第7号通令,Boyd记录的内容包括处理五类分子应该经过公安局,”“对资本家决定监督劳动或驱逐出京时要考虑其家庭困难和身体因素,和已处理过的右派不必驱逐。经查通令,以上三条对应原文分别是处理(勒令离京回原籍的地富反坏),要与公安机关取得联系,处理办法,由公安机关主要负责决定。在这类人中,丧失劳动能力,原籍又无人抚养者,或原籍就在北京者,为了避免加重农民负担,一般可以不离开北京,就地监督改造。”“资本家不必离开北京,可以继续留在原单位接受改造。右派分子不必离开北京,继续留在原单位,由原单位通过组织系统进行处理,更便于对这类人的斗争、监督和改造。可以看到Boyd的概括有不准确之处,通令说资本家不必离京,并没有考虑其困难与否或身体情况,原文是说家庭困难的地富反坏可不必离京。
对第8号通令Boyd记录的内容是是否适用6号通令所提一般办法要视群众意愿而定,经查,通令对应原文是关于第六号通令中的不要长时间低头和站立的决定,应根据斗争的需要,由革命群众权宜处理。另外,值得注意的是这个通令中再一次解释了为何以前驱逐资本家离京回原籍乡下的做法是不适当 的,通令说到资本家留在城市里,发动受其剥削压迫,最了解其罪恶活动的工人来监督改造他们。这是符合党的政策的,是行之有效的办法,是资本家所最害怕 的。对于右派分子的处理,原则上与资本家同。我们不应该简单地把矛盾上交、下放,不负责任地把脏水泼到别人的院子里。这个不要上交、下放矛盾的指示出自 毛泽东,就在这个通令发表的前一天周恩来在首都大中学校红卫兵代表第二次座谈会上引用了毛的话说毛主席教导我们:矛盾不能上交,也不能下放,要自己解 决,不能以邻为壑。(见1966910日《周恩来在首都大中学校红卫兵代表第二次座谈会上的讲话》,宋永毅主编:《中国文化大革命文库》,2006年版。)
    Boyd记录的9号通令是关于红卫兵应如何对待外国人的,大概内容是解释文化大革命,为101日做好准备,不要阻拦外国人的车,让外国人照相,尊重别国风俗习惯。经查,该通令原文副标题是:《首都红卫兵纠察队西城分队指挥部关于十一接待外宾工作的意见》,以上各点对应原文是分利用外宾 参观、访问、开座谈会、个别谈话的机会,大力宣传毛泽东思想,让他们把毛泽东思想的火种带到世界各地,烧起世界革命的烈火。不要阻拦外宾的车,不要围追外 宾,除了个别的别有用心的人之外,一般不阻拦外宾照相,保证他们的正常活动。对于外宾的衣着、装饰、爱好,也不要干涉。
    对于西纠第10号通令,Boyd记录到不要在意外地来京红卫兵的出身不好问题,要照顾好他们,帮助他们与相应组织取得联系。经查,该通令对应原文是我们北京红卫兵和革命同志,应该举双手拥护中央决定,用最大的 革命热情欢迎来自全国各地的革命同学,” “对于一部分出身非红五类的同学,只要他们是革命的,我们也要热烈欢迎。” “全体红卫兵立即行动起来,尽一切可能解决外地来京同学的困难。各单位负责人应当迅速地,尽可能让出房子,和市委取得联系,把外地同学的住、吃、交通、医 药落实下来,并尽力满足他们的交流经验的要求。

三、北航红旗在中央军委外静坐并同警卫发生争执
Boyd说近来最引人注意的是在国务院外张贴的关于北航红旗与军人冲突的大字报。不过Boyd的记述有些不准确,可能是大字报写的不清楚,或者Boyd不了解情况。实情是北航红旗的学生在825日至921日连续28昼夜在国防科工委外静坐,而且国防科工委和总参谋部、总政治部和国防部同在旃坛寺的一个大院,但中央军委是在景山前街20。而Boyd认为北航红旗战斗队既在国防科工委外静坐26天,又有另外一个分队到中央军委外围攻警卫几天。Boyd把北京航空学院翻译成“Air Force Academy”(空军学院)也不恰当。另外,关于北航学生静坐的不同说法,参见原国防科工委副主任罗舜初的《国防部门前的二十八昼夜》和北航红旗戴维堤的《逝者如斯》http://www.cnd.org/CR/ZK08/cr502.gb.html


四、一起令人沮丧的驱逐出京事件
    BoydWilson报告说,Wilson之前住北京时对面的邻居杨秀成(音)被红卫兵勒令离京了。915日红卫兵说杨是资本家,用六个名字开了八个账户,在家里地板下还藏了3000元现金,尽管如此还为子女上学申请奖学金。红卫兵要求杨在48小时内离京,第二天杨的四个子女就贴大字报谴责父亲,欢迎驱逐他出京的决定,并说“现在党才是我们的爹妈”。Boyd称此事depressing
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

(1017/66)              RESTICTED             The Office of the British
Charge dAffaires,
PEKING.
28 September, 1966.


The following, briefly, are some further points of interest about the Peking scene.

2.   A poster of 20 September recorded the fact that a strike had been taking place at The Peking Woollens Factory. The strikers were "revisionists". Their strike had begun on 12 September and was still going on. This little incident, presumably sparked off by a Red Guard visit, shows very well why the authorities had to speak twice, through the People's Daily, in that same week about not hindering production.

3.   We have not reported on the interesting series of T'ung-ling (commands) issued by the control squad of West Peking (where the Control Squad movement started). The contents of some were as follows:
(Beginning of September) - No. 3 (from memory): Don't force people to use bicycle lamps. Don't take away old cadres' cars.
(9 September) No. 6: Don't beat people, make them kneel and bow their heads, hang placards on them, smear their faces. Do not send letters of persecution to them.
(9 September) No. 7: Handling of Five-Bad Elements should be done through the Public Security authorities. Hardship and sickness are to be taken into account when expelling capitalists from Peking or making them work. Rightists dealt with once need not be gone over again.
(11 September) No. 8: (A step back). No. 6 referred to gentle methods. Whether or not these are used depends on will of masses.
(14 September) No. 9: Treatment of foreigners: explain Cultural Revolution; make Peking nice for 1 October; don't pester foreigners and meddle with their cars; let them take photographs (except badly disposed persons); respect different customs and habits.
(14 September) No. 10: Never mind bad background of many Red Guards from outside Peking. Look after them, help them to liaise with appropriate organisations.

4.   There is also a poster dated 10 September listing specific points to look for when dealing with foreigners. Guarantee their safety; respect their odd clothes and habits; don't close shops and restaurants which they use. This poster is displayed prominently outside the Friendship Store and similar organisations.

5.   A most intriguing series of posters outside the State Council recorded the siege of the Military Affairs Committee, and more particularly its guardhouse, by 200 "Red Flag Combat Troops" from the Air Force Academy for several days after 25 August (a similar siege outside the Scientific and Technological Commission went on for 26 days). The incident was deplored by Red Guards from the same Academy. The "Red Flags" came to the M.A.C. on 25 August in search of a man called Chao Ju-chang. When stopped at the guard-post, they camped on the spot and made a nuisance of themselves, handing out leaflets, demanding to eat in the guard-post and sticking up posters there. They disregarded the rules 0f the guard-post. They quoted tendentiously from Mao, confusing contradictions within the people with those between the people and the enemy. They said "when the enemy is sharpening his knife we must sharpen ours" (which was interpreted as a threat to the troops guarding the M.A.C.). They stopped official cars and consistently refused to go to the appropriate reception room. An officer called Chang, head of the guard-post, spoke to them in unofficial terms on 3 September, making the points that the purpose of the unit was to defend Mao, the M.A.C. and the Central Committee, and that the national good must limit the actions of the "Red Flags". The problem of the man Chao was an individual one and should be settled without involving the guard-post.

6.   The final event worth reporting is the expulsion from Peking of the man who used to live opposite you, Yang Hsiu-tseng. On 15 September the Red Guards demanded his departure within 48 hours. He was a capitalist, had "eight Bank accounts in six different names and 3,000 Yuan buried under the floor-boards". He had collaborated with the Japanese but had later posed as a progressive, finally applying for admission to the Party. Despite his resources he had asked for scholarships for his children. The demand of the Red Guards was quickly executed. The next day his four small children stuck up their poster denouncing their father, welcoming his expulsion from Peking and ending "The Party is Daddy and Mummy to us now". A depressing episode.


7. I am copying this to Emrys Davies in Hong Kong, Information Research Department and Joint Research Department.
(J. D. I. Boyd).

To: D. C. Wilson, Esq.,
FAR EASTERN DEPARTMENT,
Foreign Office. 

RESTRICTED

出处:英国外交部档案FO_371_186982